Glossary

The following is a constantly updated glossary of Hellenistic astrological terms as they are translated in the texts of this library. The Greek equivalents are transliterated for convenience, although this transliteration does not necessarily reflect contemporary pronunciation. The modern astronomical and astrological terms used in the definitions are *asterisked.

The Arabo-Byzantine texts are translated according to the latest conventions employed in Benjamin N. Dykes’s translations from Arabic.

add (προστίθω, prostithō)
In nominal form as addition (πρόσθεσις, prosthesis), the Hellenistic equivalent of the *direct motion of the five planets and the accelerating motion of the Moon. The related nominal and adjectival forms are adding (προσθέτης, prosthetēs) and additive (προσθετικός, prosthetikos), respectively.
adherence (κόλλησις, kollēsis)
The Hellenistic equivalent of *conjunction, especially in course; the verbal form is adhere (κολλάω, kollaō).
Aphrodite (Ἀφροδίτη, Aphroditē)
The god associated with the planet Venus. Alternatively, Venus itself, sometimes also called the Light-Bringing (Φωσφόρος, Phōsphoros) Star.
appearance (φάσις, phasis)
One of the various ways a star is visible or invisible in the sky, especially its notable *phases.
Archer (Τοξότης, Toxotēs)
The Hellenistic equivalent of the sign or *constellation of *Sagittarius.
Ares (Ἄρης, Arēs)
The god associated with the planet Mars. Alternatively, Mars itself, sometimes also called the Fiery (Πυρόεις, Puroeis) Star.
Ascending Node (Ἀναβιβάζων, Anabibazōn)
In full form, ὁ Ἀναβιβάζων Σύνδεσμος, ho Anabibazōn Sundesmos, literally, “the bond associated with going up,” the place where the Moon crosses the ecliptic circle heading toward northern latitude.
ascension (ἀναφορά, anaphora)
The rising of a star or sign on the eastern horizon; the verbal form is ascend (ἀναφερόμαι, anapheromai). The ascension of a sign is the time (expressed in *rectascension) in which the entire sign ascends; if it is little, the sign is called that of short ascension (ὀλιγοανάφορος, oligoanaphoros) but if much, that of of short ascension (πολυανάφορος, poluanaphoros).
Balance (Ζυγός, Zugos)
The Hellenistic equivalent of the sign or *constellation of *Libra.
beams, being under the ~ (ὕπαυγος, hupaugos)
The Hellenistic equivalent of being *combust or *under the Sun’s rays, the opposite of being out of the beams (ἔξαυγος, exaugos). Its synonym is being related to setting.
behold (θεωρέω, theōreō)
One of the Hellenistic *aspect verbs.
benefic (ἀγαθοποιός, agathopoios)
Literally, “good-doer,” a class of the planets, where at least Jupiter and Venus belong.
birth (γένεσις, genesis)
Also as γέννησις, gennēsis, the birth of a human, also called nativity (γενέθλιον, genethlion), but by extension, any beginning, the celestial disposition associated with it, and its astrologically indicated promises.
birth-substitute (ἀντιγένεσις, antigenesis)
The Hellenistic equivalent of *solar revolution.
bound (ὅριον, horion)
One of the consecutive degrees assigned to the five planets. It is normally used in the plural for these segments, the Hellenistic equivalent of *terms.
bound-ruler (ὁριοκράτωρ, horiokratōr)
The planet ruling certain bounds.
bright degrees (λαμπρομοιρία, lampromoiria)
Literally, “the system of the bright parts of the whole,” degrees deemed bright in some sense.
Bull (Ταῦρος, Tauros)
The Hellenistic equivalent of the sign or *constellation of *Taurus.
chart (θέμα, thema)
Also in diminutive form as θεμάτιον, themation, the arrangement of sky, and by extension, its two-dimensional representation. Also called disposition (διάθεμα, diathema.
conception (σπορᾶ, spora)
The conception of a human and the corresponding celestial disposition; the adjectival form is conceptive (σπόριμος, sporimos.
Concourse (Σύνοδος, Sunodos)
The New Moon, usually the prenatal one. As a common noun, it is the Hellenistic equivalent of *conjunction.
contact (συναφή, sunaphē)
The Hellenistic equivalent of *application; the verbal form is contact (συνάπτω, sunaptō).
contrariety (ἐναντίωμα, enantiōma)
The Hellenistic equivalent of being in *detriment; the verbal form is be contrary (ἐναντιόομαι, enantioomai).
co-rise (παρανατέλλω, paranatellō)
What fixed stars or *constellations do when they rise on the eastern horizon at the same time as a part of the zodiac.
counter (ψῆφος, psēphos)
Literally, “pebble used for reckoning and voting,” it is a synonym to say.
course (περίπατος, peripatos)
Generally, the motion of the planets along the zodiac. By extension, the Hellenistic equivalent of *primary direction.
Crab (Καρκίνος, Karkinos)
The Hellenistic equivalent of the sign or *constellation of *Cancer.
crisis (κλιμακτήρ, klimaktēr)
A critical period of life.
decan (δεκανός, dekanos)
Literally, “a unit of ten,” one-third of a sign, consisting of 10 degrees.
decennial (δεκαετηρίς, dekaetēris)
The name of a predictive method.
decline (ἀπόκλιμα, apoklima)
The Hellenistic equivalent of a *cadent house; the verbal form to describe a planet being in a decline is also decline (ἀποκλίνω, apoklinō).
degree (μοῖρα, moira)
Literally, “a part of the whole,” a degree is the 360th-part of the zodiac and the 30th-part of a sign. The expression own (ἴδιος, idios) degree is applied to a bound of a planet. The adjective degree-wise (μοιρικός, moirikos is the Hellenistic equivalent of *exact, denoting precision down to the degree.
depression (ταπείνωμα, tapeinōma)
Also called dejection (κοίλωμα, koilōma), the Hellenistic equivalent of *fall; the verbal form is be depressed (ταπεινόομαι, tapeinoomai).
Descending Node (Καταβιβάζων, Katabibazōn)
In full form, ὁ Καταβιβάζων Σύνδεσμος, ho Katabibazōn Sundesmos, literally, “the bond associated with going down,” the place where the Moon crosses the ecliptic circle heading toward southern latitude.
destroyer (ἀναιρέτης, anairetēs)
The Hellenistic equivalent of the *anareta; the related nominal and adjectival forms are destruction (ἀναίρεσις, anairesis) and destructive (ἀναιρετικός, anairetikos), respectively.
diameter (διάμετρος, diametros)
Also called diametrical line (διάμετρος γραμμή, diametros grammē), roughly equivalent to *opposition but defined not only by degree but also by sign.
distribution (ἐπιμερισμός, epimerismos)
The allotment of various times of life to the planets in different predictive techniques.
division of the times (διαίρεσις τῶν χρόνων, diairesis tōn chronōn)
Ascertaining the times of life.
domicile-master (οἰκοδεσπότης, oikodespotēs)
Generally, the lord of a domicile, a synonym of which is domicile-steward (οἰκοδέκτωρ, oikodektōr); the verbal form is master the domicile (οἰκοδεσποτέω, oikodespoteō). By extension, the Hellenistic equivalent of the *alcochoden, less ambiguously called the domicile-master of the birth.
effluence (ἀπόρροια, aporrhoia)
The Hellenistic equivalent of *separation; the verbal form is flow away (ἀπορρέω, aporrheō).
Fate (Δαίμων, Daimōn)
Literally, “the divinity controlling the fate of humans,” it is the second most important lot after Fortune.
fortieth-day (τεσσαρακοσταία, tessarakostaia)
The position of the Moon on the 40th day, counting inclusively, in a distance of 150 degrees from her original position.
Full Moon (Πανσέληνος, Panselēnos)
Usually, the prenatal Full Moon.
effect (ἀποτελέω, apoteleō)
Literally, “bring to an end,” it refers to what results the astrological factors indicate and to the actual results themselves but also to the astrologer’s interpretation; in the latter case, it is translated so. The nominal form is outcome or interpretation (ἀποτέλεσμα, apotelesma).
encounter (συνάντησις, sunantēsis)
An equivalent of *conjunction.
entrance (ἐπέμβασις, epembasis)
Roughly equivalent to *transit, but normally defined only by sign.
expulsion (ἐκτροπή, ektropē)
The act and time of birth.
face (πρόσωπον, prosōpon)
Literally, “mask, character,” or “person,” the association of the seven planets with the decans.
figure (σχῆμα, schēma)
Literally, “the way one behaves,” it refers to the condition of a planet or its condition relative to another planet, mostly equivalent to *aspect.
Fishes (Ἴχθύες, Ichthues)
The Hellenistic equivalent of the sign or *constellation of *Pisces.
follow (ἕπομαι, hepomai)
Something rising after something else, hence being in a more forward position on the zodiac. The verb of the opposite meaning is lead.
Fortune (Τύχη, Tuchē)
The most important lot.
Goat-Horned One (Αἰγόκερως, Aigokerōs)
The Hellenistic equivalent of the sign or *constellation of *Capricorn.
Hermes (Ἑρμῆς, Hermēs)
The god associated with the planet Mercury. Alternatively, Mercury itself, sometimes also called the Twinkling (Στίλβων, Stilbōn) Star.
hexagon (ἑξάγωνος, hexagōnos)
Also called hexagonal side (ἑξάγωνος πλευρά, hexagōnos pleura), roughly equivalent to *sextile but defined not only by degree but also by sign.
Hour-Marker (Ὡροσκόπος, Hōroskopos)
Sometimes shortened as Hour (Ὥρα, Hōra), the Hellenistic equivalent of the *Ascendant. By extension, its sign, the first place. The verbal form to describe something being on the Hour-Marker is mark the Hour (ὡροσκοπέω, hōroskopeō).
individual degrees (μονομοιρία, monomoiria)
Literally, “the allotment of single parts of the whole,” the association of the planets with the degrees.
Kronos (Κρόνος, Kronos)
The god associated with the planet Saturn. Alternatively, Saturn itself, sometimes also called the Shining (Φαίνων, Phainōn) Star.
latitude (πλάτος, platos)
Literally, “breadth,” the Hellenistic equivalent of *ecliptic latitude. Northern and southern latitude is called northern or southern wind (ἄνεμος, anemos), and its unit is a step (βαθμός, bathmos), corresponding to the change of latitude in 15-degree longitudinal movement.
lead (ἡγέομαι, hēgeomai)
Something rising before something else, hence being in a more backward position on the zodiac. The verb of the opposite meaning is follow.
left-hand (εὐώνυμος, euōnumos)
Being toward the following part.
light (φῶς, phōs)
The Sun (Ἥλιος, Hēlios) and the Moon (Σελήνη, Selēnē).
Lion (Λέων, Leōn)
The Hellenistic equivalent of the sign or *constellation of *Leo.
longitude (μῆκος, mēkos)
Literally, “length,” the Hellenistic equivalent of *ecliptic longitude.
lord (κύριος, kurios)
A planet ruling something.
lot (κλῆρος, klēros)
The Hellenistic equivalent of an *Arabic part.
magnitude (μέγεθος, megethos)
A class a fixed star belongs to in accordance with its apparent brightness.
Maiden (Παρθένος, Parthenos)
The Hellenistic equivalent of the sign or *constellation of *Virgo.
malefic (κακοποιός, kakopoios)
Literally, “evil-doer,” a class of the planets, where at least Saturn and Mars belong.
Midheaven (Μεσουράνημα, Mesouranēma)
The tenth place. The verbal form to describe something being in the Midheaven is be in the Midheaven (μεσουρανέω, mesouraneō).
mixture (κρᾶσις, krasis)
The nature of a fixed star.
non-reared (ἄτροφος, atrophos)
An umbrella term for stillborn humans and those who die before reaching adulthood.
party (αἵρεσις, hairesis)
Also known as *sect, one of the two competing groups of the planets, the diurnal (ἡμερινός, hēmerinos) and the nocturnal (νυκτερινός, nukterinos) ones led by the Sun and the Moon, respectively. By day, the members of the diurnal party are called governing (the nominal and adjectival forms being αἱρέτης, hairetēs and αἱρετικός, hairetikos, respectively) while the members of the nocturnal party are oppositional (the nominal and adjectival forms being παραιρέτης, parairetēs and παραιρετικός, parairetikos, respectively); by night, inversely.
pivot (κέντρον, kentron)
The Hellenistic equivalent of an *angle. A planet on a pivot is called pivotal (ἐπίκεντρος, epikentros).
place (τόπος, topos)
Generally, any position on the zodiac, but in particular, the Hellenistic equivalent of a *house. What is well-situated regarding its place is called situated in good placement (ἐπιτόπως, epitopōs; literally, “on place.”)
placement (θέσις, thesis)
The position in the zodiac.
predominator (ἐπικρατήτωρ, epikratētōr)
The Hellenistic equivalent of the *hyleg.
prenatal (προγενόμενος, progenomenos)
Preceding the birth.
Ram (Κριός, Krios)
The Hellenistic equivalent of the sign or *constellation of *Aries.
ray (ἀκτίς, aktis)
The Hellenistic equivalent of an *aspect.
recede (ἀναποδίζω, anapodizō)
A synonym for subtract; the nominal form is recession (ἀναποδισμός, anapodismos).
receive (ὑποδέχομαι, hupodechomai)
For a planet, to have another planet in one of its own signs or degrees.
regard (ἐπιθεωρέω, epitheōreō)
One of the Hellenistic *aspect verbs.
related to rising (ἀνατολικός, anatolikos)
The opposite of related to setting.
related to setting (δυτικός, dutikos)
A synonym to being under the beams. As setting appearance, it refers to the *phasis of last visibility before disappearing under the beams.
release (ἄφεσις, aphesis)
The Hellenistic equivalent of what is done with the *significator in *primary direction. The releaser (ἀφέτης, aphetes) is something being released (ἀφετεύω, apheteuō), but in particular, it is the Hellenistic equivalent of the *hyleg, specifically in the context of release. The related adjective is releasing (ἀφετικός, aphetikos).
return (ἀποκατάστασις, apokatastasis)
The Hellenistic equivalent of the *revolution of a planet.
revolution (περίοδος, periodos)
One of the various periods associated with the planets, including their orbital periods and the so-called complete (τέλειος, teleios), mean (μέσος, mesos), and lesser (ἥττων, hēttōn) or least (ἐλάχιστος, elachistos) periods.
right-hand (δεξιός, dexios)
Being toward the leading part.
say (λόγος, logos)
One of the different rulerships of a planet over its own signs or degrees. The same word is very also very commonly used in a non-technical sense. A less ambiguous synonym is counter.
Scorpion (Σκορπίος, Skorpios)
The Hellenistic equivalent of the sign or *constellation of *Scorpio.
see (ὁράω, horaō)
One of the Hellenistic *aspect verbs.
Setting (Δύσις, Dusis)
Also called the setting (δύνων, dunōn) pivot, the Hellenistic equivalent of the *Descendant. By extension, its sign, the seventh place. The verbal form to describe something being in the Setting is set (δύνω, dunō).
seventh-day (ἑβδομαία, hebdomaia)
The position of the Moon on the 7th day, counting inclusively, in a distance of 90 degrees from her original position.
side (πλευρά, pleura)
An umbrella term for trigons, tetragons, and hexagons.
sign (ζῴδιον, zōidion)
Literally, “depiction,” a sign is the 12th-part of the zodiac—hence also called twelfth-part (δωδεκατημόριον, dōdekatēmorion)—consisting of 30 degrees. The expression own (ἴδιος, idios) sign is applied to the domicile (οἶκος, oikos), the exaltation (ὕψωμα, hupsōma), or a trigon of a planet. The adjectival form sign-wise (ζῳδιακός, zōidiakos) refers to counting by signs and not more precisely by degrees.
star (ἀστήρ, astēr)
An umbrella term for bright celestial bodies, including both fixed (ἀπλανής, aplanēs; literally, “non-wandering”) and wandering (πλανώμενος, planōmenos) stars; the latter are often shortened as planets (singular πλανήτης, planētēs; literally, “wanderer”). The exact meaning depends on the context.
station (στηρίζω, stērizō)
For the five planets, to reach zero speed. The nominal form station (στηριγμός, stērigmos), one of the appearances, is used both to the phenomenon and its position. The expressions first and second station refer to becoming subtractive and additive, respectively.
subtract (ἀφαιρέω, aphaireō)
In nominal form as subtraction (ἀφαίρεσις, aphairesis), the Hellenistic equivalent of the *retrograde motion of the five planets and the decelerating motion of the Moon. The related nominal and adjectival forms are subtracting (ἀφαιρέτης, aphairetēs) and subtractive (ἀφαιρετικός, aphairetikos), respectively.
succedent (ἐπαναφορά, epanaphora)
Literally, “post-ascending,” a place following a pivot and leading a decline.
tetragon (τετράγωνος, tetragōnos)
Also called tetragonal side (τετράγωνος πλευρά, tetragōnos pleura), roughly equivalent to *square but defined not only by degree but also by sign.
third-day (τριταία, tritaia)
The position of the Moon on the 3rd day, counting inclusively, in a distance of 30 degrees from her original position.
throne, be on one’s own ~ (ἰδιοθρονέω, idiothroneō)
To be in strong *dignity.
times of life (χρόνοι ζωῆς, chronoi zōēs)
The various periods of life established by different predictive methods.
transmission and acquisition (παράδοσις καὶ παράληψις, paradosis kai paralēpsis)
The Hellenistic equivalent of *profection.
trigon (τρίγωνος, trigōnos)
Also called trigonal side (τρίγωνος πλευρά, trigōnos pleura), roughly equivalent to *trine but defined not only by degree but also by sign. In another sense, it is the Hellenistic equivalent of *triplicity. The interpretation depends on the context.
twelfth-part (δωδεκατημόριον, dōdekatēmorion)
A sign as one-twelfth of the zodiac or one-twelfth of a sign. Related to the latter meaning, it also means an alternative position of something, akin to *harmonics.
twelve-turning (δωδεκάτροπος, dōdekatropos)
The twelve places.
Twins (Δίδυμοι, Didumoi)
The Hellenistic equivalent of the sign or *constellation of *Gemini.
union (συζυγία, suzugia)
The New Moon or the Full Moon.
Water-Pourer (Ὑδροχόος, Hudrochoos)
The Hellenistic equivalent of the sign or *constellation of *Aquarius.
witness (μαρτυρέω, martureō)
One of the Hellenistic *aspect verbs; the nominal form is witnessing (μαρτυρία, marturia).
year-ruler (ἐνιαυτοκράτωρ, eniautokratōr)
The ruler of the year in transmission and acquisition.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeus)
The god associated with the planet Jupiter. Alternatively, Jupiter itself, sometimes also called the Radiant (Φαέθων, Phaethōn) Star.
zodiacal circle (ζῳδιακός κύκλος, zōidiakos kuklos)
Also shortened as zodiac (ζῳδιακός, zōidiakos; literally, “[the circle] of the depictions”), it is the belt on both sides of the ecliptic circle (ὁ διὰ μέσων τῶν ζῳδίων κύκλος, ho dia mesōn tōn zōidiōn kuklos; literally, “the circle through the middle of the depictions”) in which the planets move. It is divided into twelve signs and 360 degrees.
zone (κλίμα, klima)
Literally, “slope,” it refers to one of the latitudinal stripes defined by the local maximum length of daytime.